6. WHO, ibid.
7. Mason JD. Munchausen's Syndrome by Proxy. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/806735-overview.
8. Verive M. Near Drowning. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/908677-overview.
9. American Academy of Pediatrics. Prevention of drowning in infants, children and adolescents. http://www.guideline.gov/summary/summary.aspx?doc_id=4255&nbr=003255&string=drowning+AND+pediatrics Aug 2003, accessed June 27, 2009.
11. Gulliver P, Begg G. Usual water-related behavior and near-drowning incidents in young adults. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 29(3):238–244, 2005.
12. http://phoenix.about.com/cs/wet/a/saltpool01.htm, accessed Nov 12 2008.
13. Circulation 2005, part 10.3. http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/112/24_suppl/IV-133.
14. Jenkinson SG, George RB. Serial pulmonary function studies in survivors of near drowning. Chest 77(6)777–80, Jun 1980.
15. Personal communication with Chris Johnson, BHS, NREMT-P (ret.).
18. Organizations mentioned in this section are for illustration and initial points of contact. Prospective rescue units should evaluate course offerings and obtain appropriate instruction for their situation and needs.
19. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swiftwater_rescue quoting NFPA 1670 Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Rescue.
24. Maloney ES. Chapman's Piloting & Seamanship, pp. 90–97, Hearst Books, 65th Ed, 2006. Also see USCG information at http://www.uscgboating.org/safety/fedreqs/equ_pfd.htm.
25. www.uscg.mil/d13/diraux/docs/dirauxnotes/200408.pdf. Includes information on the USCG requirements for Personal Protective Equipment beginning on page 3.
29. Harris M. Near Drowning, Clinical Review. Br Med J 327:1336–1338, 2003.
30. Bernard SA, et al. Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia. N Engl J Med 346:557–563, 2002.
31. Dottorini M, et al. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure in the treatment of near-drowning in fresh water. Chest 110:1122–1124, 1996.
32. Personal experience with UH-1H/V helicopters in the 4th Platoon, 507th Medical Company (air ambulance) from 1980–83, as well as knowledge of operations involving UH/MH/SH-60 Blackhawk series helicopters. The shots of a U.S. Army MEDEVAC UH-1 drowning in the opening sequences of Rescue 911 were shots of our sister platoon (3/507th, based at Fort Hood, TX) during the flooding in Central Texas in 1982. Both aircraft used the Western Gear high-speed hoist at least through 1991. U.S. Air Force, Navy and Coast Guard helicopters often have fixed hoists mounted outside of the right side cargo door. A training manual can be found at www.helirescueconsult.com/PDFs/training.pdf.
Charles Krin is a retired family and emergency medicine physician with over 30 years' experience in the field. He was called up in support of Desert Storm in 1991, where he provided medical care while assigned at Ft. Hood, TX. He later participated in the local response to Hurricanes Opal, Katrina and Rita while practicing in Louisiana.