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Paul Murphy, MA, MSHA, is a paramedic with administrative and clinical experience in healthcare organizations.
Chris Colwell, MD, is medical director for Denver Paramedics and the Denver Fire Department, as well as an attending physician in the emergency department at the Denver (CO) Health Medical Center.
Gilbert Pineda, MD, FACEP, is medical director for the Aurora Fire Department and Rural/Metro Ambulance (Aurora, CO) and an attending physician in the emergency department at The Medical Center of Aurora and Denver Health Medical Center.
Tamara Bryan, BS, EMT-P, has more than a decade of healthcare experience, including clinical and project management roles. She is currently pursuing her Physician Assistant credentials.
|Left upper||Spleen, pancreas, stomach, kidney, colon|
|Right upper||Liver, gallbladder, pancreas, duodenum, kidney, colon|
|Right lower||Appendix, ascending colon, small intestine, ovary, fallopian tube|
|Left lower||Small intestine, descending colon, ovary, fallopian tube|
|Three central areas of the abdomen: epigastric (above the umbilical area), periumbilical (around the umbilical area), suprapubic (above the pubic area)|
|Solid organs||Liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, adrenals, ovaries|
|Hollow organs||Stomach, intestines, gallbladder, urinary bladder, ovaries|
|Right lower quadrant||Ascending colon, appendix, ovary, fallopian tube. Ectopic pregnancy, appendicitis|
|Left upper quadrant||Pancreas, spleen, kidney. Gastritis, pancreatitis, splenic involvement|
|Left lower quadrant||Sigmoid and descending colon, ovary, fallopian tube. Diverticulitis, ectopic pregnancy, ovarian torsion|
|Midline or periumbilical||Appendicitis, gastroenteritis, myocardial infarction, pancreatitis|
|Flank pain||Abdominal aortic aneurysm, renal colic|
|Pain originates in front and radiates posteriorly||Pancreatitis, appendicitis, posterior duodenal ulcer, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm|
|Suprapubic or lower abdominal discomfort||Ectopic pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cyst, others|