EMT-B: Anatomical Terms and Body Systems

The student will be able to identify, from memory and without assistance, topographic anatomical landmarks, positions, body systems and their functions. View/Download: HTML - Word Doc - PDF Doc


Downloadable Instructor's Guides

Session Reference:

Topic: Anatomical Terms and Body Systems Drill

Level of Instruction: 3

Time Required: 3 Hours

Materials:

  • Chalkboard
  • Anatomy visuals
  • Anatomy handouts

References:

  • Brady Emergency Care (9th ed.)

Preparation

Motivation: An understanding of basic anatomy contributes to accurate communications between field providers as well as hospital personal. Understanding anatomy is critical to be able to use the mechanism of injury to determine potential injuries sustained by the patient.

Objective (SPO): The student will be able to identify, from memory and without assistance, topographic anatomical landmarks, positions, body systems and their functions.

Overview:

  • Directional Terms
  • Positional Terms
  • Body Systems

Anatomical Terms and Body Systems

    SPO 1-1
    The student will be able to identify, from memory and without assistance, topographic anatomical landmarks, positions, body systems and their functions.

    EO 1-1
    Identify the standard directional terms used to describe directions and positions of the body.

    EO 1-2
    Identify the standard positional terms used to describe directions and positions of the body.

    EO 1-3
    List the body systems and describe their component functions.


Instructional Guide

Directional Terms (1-1)

  • Anatomical position
    • Person standing erect
    • Facing forward
    • Palms facing forward
  • Planes
    • Flat surface dividing a body into halves
    • Midline
      • center of body
      • between eyes, extending through umbilicus
      • creates left and right halves
  • Medial
    • position close to the midline
  • Lateral
    • position further away from the midline
  • Bilateral
    • refers to both sides of the body
  • Mid-axillary line
    • vertically from mid-armpit to the ankle
    • creates front and back halves
  • Anterior
    • front half
    • also referred to as ventral
  • Posterior
    • back half
    • also referred to as dorsal
  • Superior
    • above
  • Inferior
    • below
  • Proximal
    • closer to the torso
  • Distal
    • farther away from the torso
  • Palmar
    • refers to palm of the hand
  • Plantar
    • refers to sole of the foot
  • Mid-clavicular line
    • runs through the center of clavicle and the nipple below
  • Abdominal quadrants
    • created by drawing horizontal and vertical lines through the navel
      • left upper quadrant (LUQ)
        • stomach
        • spleen
        • portion of the colon
        • small intestine
      • right upper quadrant (RUQ)
        • liver
        • gall bladder
        • portion of the colon
        • small intestine
      • left lower quadrant (LLQ)
        • small intestine
        • large intestine
      • right lower quadrant (RLQ)
        • small intestine
        • large intestine
        • appendix

Positional Terms (1-2)

  • Supine
    • Patient lying on back
  • Prone
    • Patient lying on abdomen
  • Recovery position
    • Preferred position for unconscious non-trauma patient
    • Patient lying on side
    • Also know as laterally recumbent
      • left laterally recumbent
      • right laterally recumbent
  • Fowlers position
    • Seated position
    • Generally 45 - 60 degree angle
    • Legs may be straight out or bent
  • Semi-Fowler’s position
    • Semi-sitting position
  • Trendelenburg position
    • Patient lying with head slightly lower than feet
      • patient may lie flat and elevate legs
      • If on spine board, tilt the board
      • sometimes called the shock position

Body systems (1-3)

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